Zelda Facets (4): Weapons
Zelda Facets (6): Zelda

Zelda Facets (5): Horses

Last week, the unique experience of fighting with ephemeral weapons. This week, one of the most outstanding features of the Zelda franchise: its horses. Contains a major narrative spoiler for Shadow of the Colossus.

Zelda HorseDuring one of Corvus Elrod’s Blogs of the Round Table events, near the very beginning of my time as a blogger, I laid my cards upon the table concerning my love of videogame horses. It all began with Ocarina of Time, one of my least favourite Zelda games that was nonetheless entirely redeemed by the presence of the first great videogame horse – Epona. There had been horses in 2D games before this, Mike Fahey mentions the Atari 2600 game Stampede as his first, but polygonal 3D animations give a sense of presence to equine models that hugely transcends anything that sprite animations can achieve, and riding Epona through Hyrule in 1998 was an unforgettable experience.

It is apparent from the moment the N64 game begins that the horse is the star of the show, with the attract sequence focusing on Epona riding across Hyrule to the gentle strains of music by Koji Kondo, who wrote the iconic score for Ocarina of Time and a great many other Nintendo classics. According to an interview with Eiji Aonuma for Nintendo Power celebrating the ten year anniversary of the game, Epona became part of the project largely because Shigeru Miyamoto likes horses. Pegasus Shoes had been considered for travel prior to that point, but Miyamoto-san was keen on having something to interact with. According to a 2011 Iwata Asks, while the motivation came from the original Zelda master himself, it was up to Yoshiaki Koizumi, now Deputy General Manager of EAD, but then 3D System Director, to make the idea work. Apparently, it had first been explored as an idea for Super Mario 64 and had not proved practical at the time, but Koizumi-san persisted in producing a technical demo that cleared the way for the horse to star in Ocarina of Time.

It was Koizuma-san who came up with the name Epona, after the goddess of horses and fertility in Celtic mythology, having apparently been briefly called ‘Ao’, a Japanese word for a blue-green colour with no equivalent word in English, associated with horses because of the exceptionally rare blue roan coloration. An inherent design tension is apparent in the implementation of Epona: on the one hand, Miyamoto-san had dictated that “a Legend of Zelda game doesn’t need any difficult actions”, hence the horse jumps automatically. On the other, the Zelda-creator felt that simply riding the horse wouldn’t be fun without some kind of action, so the horse was given a set of carrots that allowed the player to make the horse go faster, but when none were left it was not possible to jump. It is within this tension – actions that are easy to take but require finesse to use well – that all Zelda games pitch their challenges. 

Epona was a huge success with players – who had almost certainly never wanted a game with a horse before this moment – and she reappears in Majora’s Mask (the direct sequel), although has something of a lesser role because the temporal structure of that game tends to de-emphasise the physical space of the world. With Wind Waker, however, a new ‘mount’ was tried in the form of a beautifully implemented sailing boat, the King of Red Lions, but despite the aesthetic success of this design it was not to appear in the franchise again. Likewise, Skyward Sword features a flying mount called a Loftwing, that is unique to that game and does not appear elsewhere. These experiments in alternative mounts are interesting in their own right (especially the King of Red Lions), but the franchise keeps returning to horses as the mount of preference.

In Twilight Princess, Epona makes another appearance (although the player has the capacity to rename her in this game), with far more advanced implementation. In Ocarina of Time, it was possible to fire the bow from horseback but not fight. For Twilight Princess, mounted combat is a significant part of the game, and the final battle against Ganondorf occurs on horseback with Princess Zelda sat behind Link upon Epona’s back. As with the earlier game, Link has the capacity to call his trusty steed and icons to make her gallop faster, but these are now styled as spurs rather than carrots, an iconography that recurs with Breath of the Wild.

While it is possible to get Epona in the newest Zelda game by using a Link Amiibo to unlock her, Breath of the Wild features a far more expansive horse system. Indeed, the implementation of horses in this new game is the most complex and engaging of any videogame ever made, and one of the great triumphs of the development team’s work in this iteration. This is particularly apparent during the time that players are building up their relationship with a new horse, since the mount behaves quite convincingly like a wild horse that has already been broken in (that is, become comfortable with a rider). Rather than the horse simply following the player’s instructions, it resists according to its own fears and concerns, being reluctant to go down certain routes, cross the most precarious bridges, or to ride too fast in some areas. The experience of riding during this rather brief window with a new horse is deeply rewarding in terms of the play aesthetics, creating a real sense of partnership between horse and rider, comparable to authentic horse riding in many respects. Of course, if the player treats game horses as cars on legs, they will be frustrated or disappointed. But for someone such as myself with a lifelong love of videogame horses, Breath of the Wild raised the bar absurdly high.

Yet despite this remarkable developmental success, horses are entirely undermined within the game by the fast travel system, which allows players to revisit at will any of the 120 Shrines, 15 towers, or 3 special locations simply by selecting them from the map. Unlike any Zelda before, this capacity to travel instantly to just about anywhere the player has already visited is available from very nearly the beginning of the game (strictly, from the moment the first tower is activated). This makes travelling by horseback of extremely limited use: while there are places (such as Kakariko village) that can be reached more easily for the first time by horse, this is offset by the fact that when travelling a route for the first time there is a great deal to find and the player is unlikely to feel comfortable simply riding through, ignoring everything on the way. Indeed, in the case of Kakariko, if the player ride there for the first time (as I did) you miss out on the encounter with Hestu, the Korok character who provides the essential capacity to expand the player’s inventories, and for which there is absolutely no funnelling to ensure the player will locate him afterwards.

A generous interpretation of this situation is that it honours the player’s agency in giving them the choice of whether to ride or not to ride. But a pragmatic analysis of the way the game functions suggests that there is no real choice here: riding is inferior in terms of travel time when revisiting (since the fast travel is instantaneous) and disadvantageous when first exploring, because either nothing is found or the player must stop constantly and dismount. There are a handful of side quests that require horses to complete, but beyond these all the beauty and charm of the mounted systems are essentially wasted in Breath of the Wild, having been undermined by the sheer immediacy of travelling directly to any of the 138 locations on the map that can offer a lazy immediacy of access.

In my own case, my initial joy at exploring the horse system was short lived, but I was bowled over by the impact of the first encounter with wild horses. The game asks the player to capture untamed horses by sneaking up to them and then surviving a ‘bucking bronco’ challenge where success is directly proportional to Link’s current Stamina (or supply of Stamina-restoring meals…). There follows perhaps half an hour of riding time where the horse possesses tremendous personality and identity. After this, the horse behaves much like a horse in any other contemporary AAA game (e.g. Assassin’s Creed: Origins) with the capacity to follow paths on their own but otherwise little identity. Don’t get me wrong, they are still enormous fun to ride – but all the unique aesthetic moments the horse system provides are under-represented or squeezed out of relevance.

However, after completing the game for the first time, I made a personal commitment to the horses and for the next ten hours or so did not use the fast travel system for anything. I wanted to experience what the Hyrule of Breath of the Wild was truly like as a mounted adventure – and was extremely satisfied by this experience, which took me more or less everywhere that it is possible to ride a horse. I was particularly impressed, for instance, that it is possible to reach the elusive Korok settlement in Great Hyrule Forest with a horse, despite the difficult problems posed by crossing the mysterious and spooky maze that is the Lost Woods. These were some of my most enjoyable hours with the game, in part because I was freed from its compulsive grip (having already competed it) and felt empowered to enjoy the world for what it was.

There is, however, one last aspect of the horses that provides a significant advantage and that might cause some players to find keeping up their equestrian practices worthwhile. Upon horseback, jumping rockets the player into the air to a degree equivalent to using a stuntman’s trampette. Since the game allows the player access to ‘bullet time’ when drawing their bow in the air (but never on the ground), horses provide the most reliable access to these time-slowing capacities, which can be especially useful when fighting the dreaded Guardian Stalker enemies, whose beam weapons are fatal in the early game and remain nasty all the way through. This small silver lining provides a reason – beyond the sheer aesthetic pleasure of riding – to traverse the beautiful lands of Hyrule upon the back of a horse.

One final point is worth mentioning. Horses can die. This provided the most shocking moment of any Zelda game I have ever played, when a routine expedition along a coastal path went horribly wrong as I took a narrow path too rapidly and my mount stumbled, fell down the cliff, and died. Even knowing that the developers had provided an option for resurrection via a convenient Horse Goddess, I was hurt and humbled by realising that I had brought this imaginary horse’s life to an end. This was radically more upsetting than the death of Agro in Shadow of the Colossus, since that event happens in a pre-scripted cut scene (and thus not as a result of player action), and was also not much of a surprise to me as an experienced game writer. Losing a horse in Zelda, though – that was a powerful and distressing moment, one that forever changed the way I rode around Hyrule. I was not, and still am not, willing to let another of my beautiful fictitious horses die as a result of my carelessness and this serves as another reminder of the incredible polish evident in the horse system in Breath of the Wild. What a shame that it is also so cruelly undermined by the overall design.  

Next week, the final part: Zelda


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I have yet to see an implementation of large-scale Fast Travel that I am in favor of. At the beginning of The Witcher 3, I felt like there was a world to discover so massive I could never master it all, but very rapidly it started feeling tiny and uninteresting because at every point I was being told exactly where to go and then I could just magically appear there rather than doing any of the legwork. (I also have a serious issue with minimaps.) In Skyrim I saw little bits of world-building where there are actually shortcuts and signage and other things that would make the game fun to get to know and get around in, but because of Fast Travel I never felt any connection to any particular part of the world, because there was never any reason to go back, even just to pass through, once I'd been there once.

As something that exists to avoid frustrating some players (here, those who don't like exploring), and which in the process completely undermines the hard work that's been put in to please others (those who do), it reminds me of the problems of Gerudo Fortress in Ocarina of Time. It always felt to me like nothing more than sloppily designed padding, until I found out you could jump over the canyon to there with Epona. (I probably only found out from some video on the internet. I never would have thought to try that on my own.) What that means is that if you're really determined, you can get there without using the Hookshot to get yourself across. If the first thing you do immediately upon starting Act 2 of the game is get Epona, despite the game telling you you need to go get the Hookshot instead, and then you continue to ignore the game's instructions and ride Epona over to Gerudo Fortress, you can play the area the way it was clearly designed to be played.

There's only one path through the mini-dungeon that won't get you caught. If you make a mistake, you're thrown out at the entrance (rather than in the dungeon, as you are if you have the Hookshot) and you have to start over. So each time, you get a little better at getting through. You know exactly where each guard is, how they move, and what you can do to get past them unseen. And if you follow that linear path, it takes you all the way through the fortress, passing by everyone you need to save along the way. This is a hardcore gamer's challenge through and through, and it's actually really fun. What's more, it creates the exact kind of feeling the story calls for there - you are breaking into a heavily guarded thieves' fortress, and in so doing you prove yourself so skilled that they accept you into their ranks. You feel that you're not meant to be there from the way they so quickly throw you out and make you start over, and when you're done you feel accomplished enough to deserve the honor they pay you.

(Incidentally, the feelings of the gameplay encouraging you to be the person Link is meant to be at a given moment in the story is one of my favorite things about the series. The game isn't just treating Link as your avatar. At the series' peaks it also treats you as the actor who plays Link, providing kinds of gameplay that help you get into character. I don't know if this is where you're going with this series, but I could easily write 100 pages on the subject so I'll leave the idea at that for now.)

With the Hookshot, you can go anywhere you want straight away, because the Hookshot can latch on to almost anything in the entire fortress. Ceilings? Sure. Walls? Yep. Hit a Gerudo and she gets stunned for long enough for you to just walk past. And since there's no particular order to anything you're doing, the whole place just feels random and chaotic and you can easily miss someone you're supposed to rescue and just end up wandering around aimlessly until you find them. Clearly what happened is that in testing, a lot of players gave up there, so rather than making the fortress optional (which would have made perfect sense, since there's an entire other mini-dungeon that you unlock by getting through there - an excellent reward for a side-quest), they decided to just make the Hookshot act as a cheat code, letting everyone beat the level at the expense of letting anyone actually enjoy it.

That's basically how I feel about Fast Travel. It's a cheat code, and it needs to be used very very carefully by the designers to avoid breaking the pleasures which can be gotten from the game. I've said this before on your blogs, but it's better to give the players quality content and demand that they adjust to accommodate it, than to adjust the game so much to accommodate the players that you end up not delivering quality content.

On a completely separate note, it's not entirely correct that the boat doesn't show up again. You have a boat in The Wind Waker's direct sequel, the atrocious Phantom Hourglass on DS. The gameplay bends The Wind Waker's ideas into the mold of DS experiments from the previous year like Yoshi Touch & Go, Kirby: Canvas Curse and Star Fox: Command. In all these games, you draw a path and the character follows it, a design that grew out of the necessity to market the stylus as a good addition to Nintendo's games. So instead of really controlling the boat, you draw the path and then switch to action gameplay similar to The Wind Waker's boat cannon to defend yourself along that path. This model was expanded on to much better effect in Phantom Hourglass's superior successor, Spirit Tracks, which swaps the boat out for a train. (And a horse is fine, but that train is by far my favorite way of getting around in a Zelda game.)

Hey Mordechai,
This is a really great commentary on fast travel - and also a fascinating reading of Gerudo Fortress in Ocarina of Time! Many thanks for taking the time to write this out. I have a few points I'd like to gently push back against...

"...it's better to give the players quality content and demand that they adjust to accommodate it, than to adjust the game so much to accommodate the players that you end up not delivering quality content."

I find this a defensible argument, but it is also a difficult argument to sustain in conversation with a publisher, and even harder when focus testing is thrown into the equation. I worked on a project that provided weapons to the player character, even though it was not traditional to the franchise in question, because focus testing showed that players most frequently asked "how do I kill it?". There is nest of vipers here, and I don't have time to go into all the nuances. Suffice it to say, I have great sympathy for your position, but also recognise that most game developers (Nintendo EAD notwithstanding!) do not have the luxury to act on their ideals. The good news is, franchises like Dark Souls have opened up arguments that were previously closed, so I think there's room for debate on these kinds of issues.

"On a completely separate note, it's not entirely correct that the boat doesn't show up again."

Sorry, I may not have been clear - it's specifically the King of Red Lions who does not reappear. Indeed, he cannot, because his soul is laid to rest at the end of Wind Waker. I can see from my wording above that I have not quite made this point clear, though - thanks for drawing attention to this!

Many thanks for your thoughtful commentary!


Thank you so much for this blog post. My wife and I got a Switch 10 days ago and have been playing Breath of the Wild for every waking moment since, and because of what you said here I suggested that we ban Fast Travel from our playing. We have stuck to that in the 70-odd hours we've put in thus far (we have not been sleeping much), and the decision has paid dividends in many ways, not least of which is the bond we've formed with our two horses in the game, the gentle Lewis and wild Lucinda.

Hi Mordechai!
It certainly wasn't my intent in this piece to sway other people in how they approach the game, but I am glad you have found riding on horses as rewarding as I have! It has a great fast travel system... but those horses are far more remarkable, and continue to be a great source of joy hundreds of hours on from starting our first game.

Hope you continue to enjoy the game!


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