Previous month:
January 2009
Next month:
March 2009

February 2009

Top Ten Role-playing Game Franchises

D20 One of the most successful videogame formats of all time is the computer role-playing game (cRPG). The basis of all such games is a progression structure which functions as a reward schedule (providing a steady supply of the “reward protein” dopamine, and the promise of future reward), which as discussed previously is one of the key reasons why people play videogames.

The idea of a reward schedule is simple enough: the promise of reward creates activity in the pursuit of that reward. First formulated in something close to the modern scientific models by B.F. Skinner's experiments on rats from the 1930s onwards, the videogames industry has long known about this aspect of behaviour and utilised it to make games more addictive to players who enjoy the core activities of the game being offered. The success of MMORPGs, such as World of Warcraft, can be directly linked to the use of reward schedules as the primary motivator for continued play, although of course other factors (such as imagined community) also apply.  

The top ten cRPG franchises also include two of the top ten videogame franchises of any kind, which reiterates the importance of this genre to the videogames industry. For each of the top franchises, the total franchise sales are provided (the number of copies of all games in that franchise that have been sold), as well as the high watermark sales (the most number of copies a single title in that franchise has sold across all SKUs), as well as the ranking in popularity among gamers based upon the recent DGD2 survey. (See below for notes on the composition of this survey).

In traditional style, the top ten is presented in reverse order. Some sales figures and estimated, and corrections are welcomed in the comments.



10. The Elder Scrolls

  • 7.5 million franchise sales
  • 4 million high watermark sales (Morrowind)
  • Ranked #7 franchise by gamers, #7 franchise by male gamers, #5 franchise by female gamers

 The Elder Scrolls  represents the most successful first person cRPG franchise of all time, and it weighs in at number ten in the list. The highest sales so far are for the third title, Morrowind, but it is expected that the fourth game, Oblivion, may eventually surpass this, both titles benefiting from being distributed on consoles, having previously been solely on PC. Not counting “dungeon hacks”, The Elder Scrolls is also the most successful Western RPG franchise. It is well established within the industry that there is a clear distinction between those RPGs developed in the US and Europe, and those developed in Japan.

Characteristic of the Western RPG is a dark or mature theme, an open world, non-linear plot elements, and consequentialist choices. It is also usual for the player to be granted an exceptional degree of choice in how they develop their character. The Elder Scrolls has always embodied this aspect, as typified by the vision statement for the franchise which is based upon “being who you want, and doing what you want”. This sums up in a nutshell the basic idea behind the Western RPG, and its appeal to gamers is shown by its high placing in the survey rankings – especially among female players.

Built on the success of the diverse ways players can approach the play of these games, the fanbase for The Elder Scrolls is extremely diverse. According to Rhianna Pratchett, her father (acclaimed fantasy novelist Terry Pratchett) plays Oblivion just to mess around with the forge mechanics, rarely if ever bothering with combat, and this kind of unusual approach to play is not uncommon among fans of the franchise.


Tigerex 9. Monster Hunter

  • 8.1 million franchise sales
  • 3 million high watermark sales (Monster Hunter Portable 2nd G)
  • Ranked #132 franchise by gamers, #115 franchise by male gamers

Capcom have long been searching for a cRPG franchise, recognising the commercial potential in the form, but it wasn't until 2004 that they finally had a contender. Essentially a “dungeon hack” with fantasy dinosaurs, Monster Hunter allows players to be a melee or a ranged character, and hunt down and slay monsters, making new equipment from the remains of those monsters.

Although it can be played offline, it is designed (in a manner similar to Phantasy Star Online) to be played online with teams of up to three other monster hunters teaming up to take down the more powerful foes. It is principally popular in Japan, where most of the unit sales have been racked up, which explains its poor ranking in the survey data (which primarily included Western gamers).


Kingdom hearts.cover_l 8. Kingdom Hearts

  • 11 million franchise sales
  • 5.6 million high watermark sales (Kingdom Hearts)
  • Ranked #69 franchise by gamers, #97 franchise by male gamers, #17 franchise by female gamers

The most powerful force behind sales in any medium is the strength of a brand, and like it or hate it, the Disney brand is incredibly strong. In 2002, masters of the cRPG genre Squaresoft co-operated with Disney to make Kingdom Hearts, a hugely successful title that has gone on to produce an equally successful sequel.

Square (now Square Enix) use a well-established formula for making their Japanese-style cRPGs, and Kingdom Hearts deploys the same basic approach. Games in the Japanese role-playing game tradition (which Square embodies) tend to blend bright and dark elements in their story setting, have linear storylines, use parties consisting usually of fixed members, have relatively static progression structures (players work to power up their characters, but have few choices therein) and provide a completely different set of role-playing mechanics in each game in a franchise. This is in contrast with Western RPGs which tend to implement a specific RPG mechanic system (e.g. Dungeons & Dragons) which remains essentially the same across multiple titles in a franchise.


Worldofwarcraft 7. World of Warcraft

  • At least 17.8 million franchise sales
  • 11.5 million maximum concurrent subscriber base 
  • Ranked #2 franchise by gamers, #3 franchise by male gamers, #2 franchise by female gamers

What need be said about this hugely successful title? World of Warcraft currently rules the world of massively multiplayer games (at least outside of Korea!) with 11.5 monthly subscribers. It is difficult to calculate unit sales because a different distribution method has been used in each geographic territory, but the figure must approach (and perhaps exceed) 20 million units. The estimate given is based on confirmed unit sales.

The model copied by World of Warcraft is that of the LP MUD or DikuMUD, both of which were adaptations of Dungeons & Dragons (with some modification) to multiplayer text worlds. Blizzard simply added a beautifully rendered visual world, created a new set of mechanics (in a class and level form, just like D&D), and used their pre-existing fanbase to kickstart what was to become a market leader in MMORPGs. Nonetheless, this is not the top MMORPG franchise in this countdown.

The game is hugely popular with gamers, ranking at number 2 overall. Part of the success of this style of game is that on top of the compelling reward structure, the online community offers a sense of belonging. Studies show that rates of depression are higher among MMO players (likely a cause of play, not an effect), and that players of MMOs tend to be quite introverted – the online world offers a shy person an opportunity to explore socialising behind the helpful disguise of an avatar. Psychologists suggest that while MMORPGs don't provide the emotional support of a real community, they still serve to expose players to a wide variety of worldviews which can represent genuine social benefits.

Psychological studies not withstanding, players of World of Warcraft love the game, but it is becoming clear that this form of play is not reaching out to a new audience (as once suggested) but simply capitalising on the existing audience for videogames. Since it is well established that the MMO space can only support a certain volume of players, companies looking for a gap in the market would not be advised to target the MMO space without a strong license to create immediate appeal.


Diablo2 6. Diablo

  • 18.5 million franchise sales
  • 4 million high watermark sales (Diablo II)
  • Ranked #16 franchise by gamers, #16 franchise by male gamers, #38 franchise by female gamers

It's hard to know if Diablo has actually sold more units than World of Warcraft (the latter has certainly made more money), but both of Blizzard's mega-branded RPG titles have sold more than any other cRPG made in the West. All of the top five cRPG franchises were made in South East Asia. The 18.5 million franchise sale figure is provided in a press release by Blizzard with an asterisk by it, as if there was some explanatory note, but the Blizzard webside never explains what this means. Given that the highest selling title in this franchise has sold 4 million units, and that there are only two titles and two add on packs, the 18.5 million figure must presumably include something other than computer games.

The Diablo games are classic “dungeon hacks”, in which the player fights monsters in the pursuit of new and better treasure. Although there are levelling mechanics, it is the detailed and varied treasure tables which provide the primary reward structure in the Diablo games, and players will often spend considerable time searching for just the right item to complete their kit. The franchise is clearly popular among gamers, although principally male gamers.


Castelvania -symphony night E 5. Castlevania

  • 20 million franchise sales
  • Unknown high watermark sales
  • Ranked #92 franchise by gamers, #82 franchise by male gamers

Originally a platform game with combat, Castlevania II: Simon's Quest added considerable RPG mechanics to the game mechanics, including character levelling and collectible equipment, and later iterations such as Symphony of the Night have solidified the move towards the RPG format. Although not everyone would consider the Castlevania franchise to fit into the cRPG pattern, there are sufficient RPG-elements that it has been included in this countdown.

The only successful franchise to have wed RPG mechanics to a platform control scheme, this is also the most successful RPG-like game to be viewed from a side-on perspective the ideal perspective for platform play although MapleStory represents a possible objection to this claim (it was difficult to find a way to incorporate data from MMOs that are "free to play plus microtransactions", and thus they have been omitted). It's not clear what the highest sales figures set by any individual title might be, and the high franchise sales are as much a product of the number of titles (more than twenty so far) as anything else. Nonetheless, it is characteristic of a strong franchise that it is able to support multiple sequels, and Castlevania is one of Konami's finest.


Lineage2 4. Lineage

  • 43 million franchise sales
  • 3 million maximum concurrent subscriber base
  • Ranked #165 franchise by gamers, #187 franchise by male gamers, #65 franchise by female gamers

Although not a major title in the West, Lineage and its sequel Lineage II are hugely popular in the Korean market, which experienced unprecedented demand for MMORPGs having acquired the internet infrastructure practically overnight. Using isometric overhead graphics (similar to Diablo II), the game mechanics are classic “dungeon hack” in nature, drawing heavily from both NetHack (a decendent of Rogue, the original “dungeon hack”) and Dungeons & Dragons.


Dragon_Quest_VIII_Journey_of_the_Cursed_King 3. Dragon Quest

  • 47 million franchise sales
  • 4.44 high watermark sales (Dragon Quest VIII)
  • Ranked #165 franchise by gamers, #150 franchise by male gamers

Like Lineage, Dragon Quest has not really made much of an impact outside of its home market, but in Japan this is one of the premier cRPG franchises. Enix, the company behind it, was thus a natural choice of partner for Square, the other major cRPG publisher in Japan, hence the merger in 2003, creating the world's largest producer of cRPG titles.

Featuring a party system, and very stat-heavy combat, Dragon Quest is unique in that it draws more heavily from Wizardry than from than from other sources (although Ultima and Dungeons & Dragons remain inescapable influences). It is the simplicity of its gameplay which has contributed both to its phenomenal success in Japan, and its difficulty selling in the West, where RPG players are often far more demanding in their play needs.


Final_Fantasy_VII_PC_Cover 2. Final Fantasy

  • 86 million franchise sales
  • 9.8 million high watermark sales (Final Fantasy VII)
  • Ranked #1 franchise by gamers, #1 franchise by male gamers, #1 franchise by female gamers

The fifth highest selling videogame franchise of any kind, Final Fantasy is one of the most important videogame brands of all time. Not only did it sell more than 8 million units almost ten years before a first person shooter was able to clear this watermark, and on a fraction of the marketing spend, but it has sold more than twice as many units as the most successful FPS franchise (Call of Duty, 35 million).

One of the key reasons for the success of this brand is its capacity for reinvention. While Western franchises build a single world within which all content is based, Final Fantasy has only a few common elements between individual titles (and these are mostly cosmetic) promising instead a new and inventive setting and original game mechanics with each successive title.

The prominent role that the art designer has in the franchise's history also points to a very different approach: just two artists, Yoshitaka Amano (I-VI) and Tetsuya Nomura (VII-X) have been responsible for almost all of the art direction in the series, and Amano-san has produced the logo designs for every major game in the franchise. This attention to artistic presentation is undoubtedly a component in the franchise's success.

In common with all Japanese RPGs, control schemes are simple while menu screens are complicated. This shows the major difference between the players of action-oriented titles such as FPS games and the players of cRPGs – the latter are more cerebral players, who want to think about what to do, rather than throwing themselves into a “tunnel of challenges”. Many RPG players do not have the reflexes to handle action games, and thus the turn-based or time-sliced approach to combat offered by Final Fantasy and other cRPG titles has additional audience reach (this is likely the reason why only one of the top ten cRPG franchises uses first person controls, which Japanese players and many casual players struggle with).

The common elements of the game mechanics throughout the franchise include the summoning of monsters as special attacks in combat, the “limit break” which allows for massive damage in response to an attack which causes high damage, and status effects (an established staple of all cRPG designs). Progress mechanics have become more complex in recent titles, with an increasing element of choice replacing the classic Japanese system of linear levelling.

This franchise was the top rated in our recent survey, by both male and female players. The appeal to female players has added significantly to the success of the franchise – not only through the additional sales this has allowed, but also because the kinds of problems that are eliminated when creating a gender-inclusive game tend to increase the appeal for male players as well, a factor The Sims also leveraged to its benefit.


Pokemon 1. Pokémon

  • 186 million franchise sales
  • 20.68 million high watermark sales (Pokémon Red, Blue and Green)
  • Ranked #54 franchise by gamers, #60 franchise by male gamers, #38 franchise by female gamers

Finally, we come to the crown jewel of all cRPGs franchises: Pokémon. The second highest selling franchise of all time (after Mario, with 201 million franchise sales) the series has achieved this in substantially fewer titles than Nintendo's other big-hitting brand. Since the appeal of the Pokémon franchise remains strong (the last major title still pulled in around 15 million unit sales), it may soon overtake Mario's crown.

Although not highly rated in the recent survey, this may reflect the fact that the core fanbase for Pokémon is with younger players, who were not a large part of the sample. Don't make the mistake of thinking that this is a game only for kids, though – hardcore players may be embarrassed to admit it in public, but a great number of cRPG fans have spent many hundreds of guilty hours levelling up their Pokémon.

With its incredibly simple representation for battle, Pokémon shows that substance in the mechanics and progression structures are far more important than visual flair in this genre. The main games in the franchise use a party system whereby the player captures monsters (known as Pokémon – a Romanised contraction of the Japanese “pocket monster”) who they then train and level up. With hundreds of different Pokémon in each game, players can express themselves through their choice of monsters, and many players get sucked into the process of powering up their different Pokémon and searching for optimal combinations of powers to make ultimate teams.

Like Final Fantasy, art design is a huge component of the franchise's success, and the cute design of the monsters (by Creatures Inc., a Japanese toy company that is a one-third owner of the brand) facilitated the brand's successful transition to other media such as television and film, further driving the phenomenal success of the franchise.

Another aspect behind the success of the game is that beyond the levelling of the monsters lies another large-scale reward schedule: collecting the monsters. “Got to catch 'em all” is the catchphrase that has been used to encourage this style of play, and designing the games over multiple SKUs such that players encourage their friends to buy a different version (or even buy a second version for themselves) undoubtedly adds to the truly impressive sales figures. A dynamite collision of two addictive reward schedules – levelling and collection – plus all the community benefits that come with trading, have combined to make this the number one cRPG franchise.


Honourable Mentions

Two additional franchises deserve an honourable mention:


Baldur's gate Honourable mention: Baldur's Gate

  • 5 million franchise sales
  • 2 million high watermark sales (Baldur's Gate II)
  • Ranked #14 franchise by gamers, #14 franchise by male gamers, #17 franchise by female gamers

Still a highly regarded Western RPG franchise, Baldur's Gate would be in the number 10 position if Castlevania were excluded from consideration. The high placing of the franchise among both male and female gamers shows its enduring appeal.


Fate Honourable mention: Fate

  • 4 million franchise sales
  • 4 high watermark sales (Fate)
  • Ranked #297 by gamers

Wild Tangent's “Casual RPG” has largely escaped noticed by gamers, but it has sold in phenomenal numbers to the casual market. Offering a stripped-down “dungeon hack”, and a choice of companion animal, this brand may continue to grow in strength over the coming years.


Life Sims

One final point of comparison may prove interesting. The “life sim” genre, pioneered by The Sims, also uses reward schedules as the basis for progress mechanics. Put aside the absence of combat, and one can make a case that these games are very similar in form to the classic cRPG – continued play produces progress, it's just that in these games the core play is non-violent, and appeals very strongly to a female audience while still attracting considerable numbers of male players. What's interesting about this is how highly ranked the life sim franchises would have been had we included them in the countdown:


Acww_big_cover Animal Crossing (would have been #7)

  • 15 million franchise sales
  • 9.53 high watermark sales (Animal Crossing: Wild World)
  • Ranked #132 franchise by gamers, #187 franchise by male gamers, #38 franchise by female gamers


Nintendogs_cover_large Nintendogs (would have been #5)

  • 21.67 million franchise sales
  • 21.67 million high watermark sales (all Nintendogs titles)
  • Unranked by gamers.


The sims The Sims (would have been #2)

  • 100 million franchise sales
  • 16 million (shipped) high watermark (The Sims)
  • Ranked #44 franchise by gamers, #115 franchise by male gamers, #4 franchise by female gamers


The DGD2 Gamer Rankings

The recent DGD2 survey covered 1,040 gamers, consisting of 50% hardcore players, 40% casual players, and 10% of respondents who didn't know whether to consider themselves hardcore or casual.

Rankings provided are based on number of individuals who mentioned one of the games in the franchise as a favourite game in the survey. Each participant in this study named three favourite game titles. You will notice that some of the ranking numbers recur – this is because equal number of mentions produces a tie at that rank, and for the lower rankings this includes dozens of different games at each rank.

The sample contained only 15% female players, less than a proportionate share of the marketplace (female players in general constitute 25% of console market, 40% of total market, although 46% of the Wii market and 54% of the DS market). The geographical distribution was focussed primarily on the US (55%) and Europe (33%), with Australasia (5%) receiving approximately proportional representation, but Japan and South East Asia were under-represented in the sample (2%).

The use of cover illustrations and other promotional artworks in this article should not be construed as an infringement of copyright as such images are employed under the doctrine of fair use, and the copyright associated with each image remains vested with its legal owner.

Noah Falstein on Insult Swordfighting

One of the best aspects of working on the new book, Beyond Game Design, was the chance to work with some of the great names of the videogames industry. Noah Falstein, who writes the bookend chapter which ties it all together, has had a career that would be the envy of any game designer, having worked for some of the most innovative and influential developers in the history of videogames, including seminal arcade developer, Williams Electronics, and the king of adventure games, LucasArts. During our email discussions while working on the book, this anecdote came up; I thought I would share it with the few surviving adventure game fans.

Monkeyisland Ron [Gilbert] managed to forget the origin of the insult swordfighting idea [in The Secret of Monkey Island], not surprisingly as it meant more to me than to him, and of course I wanted to grab all the credit I could! The full story is pretty amusing.

We'd collaborated on Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, and one of my contributions to that game was a boxing mini-game that Indy uses in his college (a scene with the college boxing ring was actually in the script we used as our Brand Bible, but it was cut from the movie) and then we used the same interface to fight various Nazi guards as I mentioned later in the chapter. I borrowed Sid Meier's swordfighting system from his original Pirates! game, figuring it would be disguised enough in the boxing game that no-one would mind, but somehow neglected to mention that to Ron. 

Then Ron was working on Monkey Island and came to me one day with the idea, “You know, I was thinking that boxing interface you came up with would make a fantastic Pirate Swordfighting interface.” So I had to confess, and as often happens in brainstorming, the pressure of having to come up with a replacement actually pushed us into an even better idea, via The Princess Bride first swordfight scene as an inspiration. The real crowning touch, though, was the idea of having the climactic fight with the Swordmaster involve different insults, letting the player realize that they could re-use specific rejoinders to match the new insults. That bit was not my idea - I'm not sure who came up with it, but I think Hal Barwood and Orson Scott Card did most of the insult writing.

More ramblings from the Beyond Game Design authors in the months to come.

Tale of Tales Interview Chris Bateman

Tale of Tales, the inventive Belgian developer behind The Endless Forest and The Path and long-time client of International Hobo, have posted an interview with our Managing Director and Creative Overlord for their company site. Michael and Auriea's latest "art game", The Graveyard, is also in this year's Independent Games Festival.

There's a short introduction on their company site, with a link to the full interview.

The Dating Game (The Escapist)

Wendy has a new article up at The Escapist, tackling the thorny question of games versus films from a rather new angle: which is a better date? Here's an extract:

There are certainly some things games could do better than movies. Games could do a great job of helping two people get to know each other - social networking sites are already exploring this kind of territory. What celebrity are you most like? How does your booklist compare to your friend's? Surely game developers can mine this kind of personal trivia for more social fun.

You can read the entire article over at The Escapist. Wendy will also be part of a group panel about the same subject at this year's GDC, moderated by Dustin Clingman.

Why You Play Games

Brain.02.color Whatever reason you enjoy playing videogames, there is one specific part of the brain that lies behind it.

For some time, game designers have known how to apply the work of the behaviourist B.F. Skinner to videogame design, creating reward schedules (such as levelling mechanics in computer RPGs) that will hook players in and keep them addicted while they play, or setting up short and medium term challenges to overcome in order to produce the same kind of pattern. These reward schedules work because when we win or attain something, the pleasure centre in the brain (the nucleus accumbens) releases a neurotransmitter called dopamine, which is chemically similar to cocaine.

But recent research into cognitive functions using functional magnetic resonance imaging has shown that these are not the only ways to trip the pleasure centre – and in fact, it's starting to look suspiciously as if whichever aspect of videogames you enjoy, the pleasure centre lies behind your enjoyment.

Suppose you are one of those players who hates the grinding for reward that cRPGs and MMORPGs expect their players to follow, much like the rats in Skinner's experiments, and you instead enjoy seeing incredible landscapes and finding wondrous things in games. Brain researchers Irving Biederman and Edward Vessel conducted fMRI scans of people viewing various different scenes and discovered a neurological mechanism for interest (or curiosity) involving the visual cortex, a part of the brain where memory is co-ordinated known as the association area (hippocampus) and a neurotransmitter called endomorphin, which is chemically similar to opium. Surprisingly, their research discovered that this interest mechanism also relied upon the pleasure centre for its sense of reward – if you are motivated by exploration and curiosity, your experience of enjoyment comes from the release of dopamine – just as it does with the grinding in cRPGs.

In all, there are at least six different ways in which a player can trip the pleasure centre and derive enjoyment from a game, the first of which is that related to Skinner's research, and which also matches what Richard Bartle has called the Achiever player in his MMO typing system. The reward of achievement is the release of dopamine from the pleasure centre – this is the most basic way to enjoy a game, and many videogame players respond to this pattern strongly, while others can enjoy it provided the game is also meeting their play needs in other ways.

Then there is the interest mechanism studied by Biederman and Vessel, which in videogames relates to why people remain interested in exploration and other expressions of curiosity, something Nicole Lazzaro has termed Easy Fun, and which relates in part to Richard Bartle's Explorers. The ultimate payoff of this kind of play is wonder – the feeling of slack-jawed amazement when you see something unexpected or utterly incredible. Although as yet the experimental evidence doesn't prove it, wonder is likely to be a large hit of endomorphin, which in turn means a large hit from the pleasure centre.

The classic “hardcore” way of playing videogames is to come up against incredibly challenging and difficult challenges and foes, and strive to overcome them. In our earlier studies we have termed players who enjoy this struggle for victory, Conquerors, while Nicole Lazzaro calls this kind of play Hard Fun. Characteristic of this play style is the emotional hit a player gets when they finally achieve victory (which in Italian is known as fiero). You know this feeling well – it's what makes you punch the air, or raise your arms suddenly, or shout out when you finally get the win. This is your body responding to a large hit of dopamine from the pleasure centre, under specific conditions set up by the gruelling battle you have fought to achieve there – the “fight” in the “fight or flight” mechanism, which is driven by frustration and anger. While gamer hobbyists often value this kind of play highly (1 in 5 gamers report anger increases their enjoyment of play) most hate it – 42% of those players surveyed in the last International Hobo player survey reported that they didn't enjoy feeling angry, and avoided games that made them feel that way.

Another traditional way that videogames can bring about enjoyment is by inciting excitement (the release of adrenalin, known these days as epinephrine), which relates to Lazzaro's Serious Fun. I have called games which have this focus rushgames, and identified many different types including those focussed upon high speeds (Burnout, Need for Speed), vertigo (Super Mario and other platform games), time pressure (Tetris, Diner Dash), linking chains (DDR, Guitar Hero), fear and survival (Resident Evil, Silent Hill), and mischief (Grand Theft Auto, Burnout 2's crash mode). These games represent the "flight" in the "fight or flight" mechanism, which is connected with what I call the fear centre (the amygdala). Not only is feeling excited something most people enjoy (8 out of 10 players surveyed gave it high marks), it enhances the feeling of success (winning, escaping or carnage) thus causing the pleasure centre to give a greater sense or reward, although not as strong a hit as that which comes from beating difficult challenges.

Another way to trip the pleasure centre is related to the games of difficult challenge, namely devising strategies and solving puzzles. There is a part of the frontal cortex of the brain which I have termed the decision centre (the orbito-frontal cortex) which transpires to be closely linked to the pleasure centre. Our brains are wired up in a particular way such that making good decisions is especially rewarding, and much as with extremely difficult play, the harder the puzzle, the bigger the reward. It seems that the pleasure centre will give a greater payoff for what is perceived as a bigger achievement, hence games that ask the player to solve difficult puzzles can be intensely rewarding for the players with the skills (and often, the patience!) to overcome them. However, such players are no longer the majority in the videogame audience, hence the decline of the adventure game genre.

Finally, enjoyment can also be derived in games from playing with people we trust – our friends, or even strangers whom we have formed a temporary bond with, as with parties in MMORPGs. These kinds of game activate a part of the brain I have termed the social centre (the hypothalamus), which releases a neurotransmitter called oxytocin. Everyone in principle enjoys the warm feelings this produces, but some introverted (or especially grumpy!) people struggle to overcome their fear or dislike of other people to get to this. A group of researchers at the University of Cagliari have shown that oxytocin (the “trust hormone”) and dopamine (the reward chemical) are closely interlinked. It seems that players who enjoy interacting with other players, such as those MMO players Richard Bartle has described as Socialisers, are also getting their enjoyment ultimately from the pleasure centre.

These six different mechanisms represent essentially all the different ways that players can find enjoyment in videogames – all ultimately triggering the pleasure centre. Three of these patterns – the Achiever-style pursuit of successive rewards, the Conqueror-style triumph over adversity, and the related solving of difficult puzzles – produce very great releases of dopamine from the pleasure centre and are thus highly addictive, but this addiction is tempered by an aspect of the play in question which certain players find off-putting. Achievement is offset by the tedium of grinding, conquering is offset by frustration and anger, and puzzle-solving is offset by bewilderment or boredom. The other three mechanisms all pair dopamine with another brain chemicals and are generally less addictive but equally engaging for the players who enjoy the relevant style of play.

So we can say, with some simplification, that the pleasure centre is the reason why you enjoy videogames, in biological terms at least – but we can't know without asking how you like to play videogames (your play style) nor which videogames you enjoy, which depends upon many other factors such as what kinds of settings, stories and art styles you enjoy. Every player is different – but every player's enjoyment rests, at the neurological level, upon triggering the pleasure centre in the brain.

You can also learn more about the biology and psychology of play in our new book Beyond Game Design: Nine Steps Toward Creating Better Videogames (with Richard Bartle, Noah Falstein, Michelle Hinn, Katherine Isbister, Nicole Lazzaro, Sheri Graner Ray, and Joseph Saulter), which will be published on March 16th but can be pre-ordered now from Amazon and all good book stores.

I would like to extend my grateful thanks to Ben Cowley for alerting me to Biederman and Vessel's work, to Corvus for creating the image of the limbic system of the brain used above, to Becca Lowenhaupt for her statistical number crunching, and to everyone who participated in the Ultimate Game Player Survey and other DGD2 research efforts, without whom this piece could not have been written.